Category: Gene Synthesis

Gene Synthesis Promotion

After its discovery and first successful application of gene synthesis in the early 1970s, by Har Gobind Khorana and associates, it has become a frequently used method within genetics and other biological research fields. Gene synthesis has a simple definition but long lasting impacts on the genetics research community and various other fields of research. Gene synthesis is the creation of a physical DNA sequence in a laboratory setting through use of various technologies. The process can easily take a requested sequence in text format and generate the physical copy of the requested sequence with ease and accuracy. Gene synthesis offers the unique ability to generate and later amplify genetic sequences that do not exist naturally in nature. This has many advantages in various fields of genetics research such as anti-biotic resistance and other evolutionary studies. At Synbio Technologies this process is accomplished through our, patent pending, Syno Platform. This platform contains three distinct phases that make going from text format to physical copy with ease and efficiency. In addition to this, Synbio Technologies offers various gene synthesis promotions that keep our prices competitive within the gene synthesis industry. The main gene synthesis promotion that we are currently offering is gene synthesis at only $0.19 per base pair. Normally $0.25 a base pair, this gene synthesis promotion is not one that can be easily passed up on. We keep our prices competitive, through our various gene synthesis promotions, and our quality guaranteed. With this combination it is possible to apply gene synthesis to various fields of genetics research with ease and for a competitive price.

Gene synthesis has applications in many different aspects of genetics research. It is applied throughout the medicinal community when studying cancer genetics and developing more effective vaccinations. Gene synthesis is also seen in the agricultural community when developing genetically modified crops that can better withstand any conditions, from arid summers to freezing winters and everything in between. Synbio Technologies is ready to offer an easier and cost effective approach to achieving these various types of research. At Synbio Technologies we offer an experience that is not commonly offered quite anywhere else when it comes to gene synthesis. On average our professional team has over ten years of hands-on experience in gene synthesis, while we average over 10 million base pairs synthesized per month. With this previous experience and constant business we are able to supply our customers with the highest quality output available for the lowest prices through our various gene synthesis promotions. In addition to our experience, using our Syno Platform we have multiple quality assessments in place to ensure the quality of the generated sequence. These quality assessments are used to verify that the sequence being generated by Synbio Technologies is identical to the sequence requested by the customer. At Synbio Technologies we guarantee the accuracy of the sequence, no matter what requested length up to and including 200kbs. As you can see, the gene synthesis promotions that Synbio Technologies has to offer are not limited to the price of synthesizing per base pair. The additional gene synthesis promotions come in the form of our hands-on experience, proven process through our Syno Platform, and high quality output. The combination of these gene synthesis promotions Synbio Technologies offers it is clear that we pride ourselves as being one of the leaders in the gene synthesis industry. Our methods have been tested, proved and verified, and we are confident in our ability to deliver the highest quality product to our customers in an efficient timeframe and cost effective manner. With these advantages you will have your high quality product, for as low as $0.19 per base pair, in a short timeframe and will be better suited to pursue any type of research you and your team are interested in.

Gene Synthesis Related Services

Gene Synthesis Mutagenesis

One of the fundamental ways to study the function of a gene is to void, knockout, its function and observe the resulting phenotype. This void of function, commonly known as mutagenesis, has been practice within the field of genetics for many years and has been proven effective countless times. A more commonly utilized method of mutagenesis, site-directed mutagenesis, is one of the most traditional methods of generating a knockout gene. The process of gene synthesis mutagenesis begins with the selection of a short primer. The primer must meet two important characteristics: it must be complementary to the sequence of interest, and it must contain a debilitating mutation that will leave the gene of interest incapacitated. The complementary nature of the primer is necessary for the primer to hybridize with the sequence of interest. The debilitating mutation is necessary in order to generate a knockout in the gene of interest. The single stranded primer is then replicated by DNA polymerase, allowing the amplification of the gene of interest which now includes the mutation specific to the primer. The mutated sequence is then inserted into a bacteria host cell via a viral vector and cloned. After amplification, the resulting sequence is then verified for accuracy. This process is laborious and may also not yield a high quality of resulting sequences. This inefficiency is due to the reliance of multiple different biological methods that are not easy to control. Over the past thirty years there have been multiple additional methods to generate mutated sequences but few with high efficiency. A new method, gene synthesis mutagenesis, has the recently become more popular as a result of its effective results and efficiency. Gene synthesis mutagenesis offers a unique approach to generating a genetic knockout within an organism. Instead of the normal site-directed mutagenesis, and somewhat hoping that the induced mutations will render the gene inactive, gene synthesis mutagenesis has the ability to generate any type of mutation within a gene. This gene synthesis is carried out by our Syno® Platform, which guarantees one hundred percent accuracy of the generated sequence. This guaranteed sequence will now contain a debilitating mutation, resulting in the creation of a knockout with little effect and high probability of success.

Gene synthesis itself has revolutionized the field of genetics. This unique technology offers the ability to synthetically engineer a gene of interest in order to be studied. Since this is possible, it is also possible to generate a gene of interest and insert mutations. This is the basic background of gene synthesis mutagenesis. Gene synthesis is the process of requested genetic sequenced in text format to the engineering of a physical copy of the requested sequence. This process has multiple steps of verification of the sequence of interest. These verifications and overall process can be altered in order to generate a sequence of interest that renders the previously functional gene inactive. Multiple different types mutations can be synthetically engineered, ranging from a frameshift mutation to a large deletion of an entire codon, both of which result in a gene damaged beyond repair. This gene can then be amplified, be either use of polymerase chain reaction or traditional subcloning, and then studied for the effects the knocked out gene has on the organism. The process of gene synthesis mutagenesis completely bypasses the reliance of DNA polymerase replicating the primer necessary in site directed mutagenesis. It relies solely on the ability to generate a mutation in text format, which can easily be done.

The connection between Synbio Technologies and gene synthesis mutagenesis is a simple one, we pride ourselves as being one the leading companies in the gene synthesis industry. On average we synthesize over 10 million base pairs a month. This process is carried out by individuals who on average have been working in this field for 10 years or longer. With this experience and constant business we have been able to perfect the pipeline from original text format to engineered product through our Syno Platform. This format is then slightly altered to accomplish gene synthesis mutagenesis requested by the customer. Instead of using the Syno Platform to synthetically engineer a functioning gene of interest, we engineer a gene of interest with a debilitating mutation. Since Synbio Technologies is one the premier companies in the gene synthesis industry, we can also be considered to be one of the leading companies in the gene synthesis mutagenesis industry.

Gene Synthesis Related Services

Synbio Tenchologies can also design sequencing with codon optimization software -NGTMCodon Optimization Technology at no cost.

Gene Synthesis Cost

Moore’s Law has been applied and shown in various industries ranging from the tech industry to the biotech industry. Moore’s Law has most notably shown within the field of genetics when analyzing the cost of sequencing the human genome. The first whole genome sequencing was conducted on a human in the early 2000s, and costed approximately $100 million dollars. Over the past ten to fifteen years the technology used to sequence the human genome has expanded rapidly, allowing the cost of sequencing to drop significantly as well. The current cost of sequencing a whole human genome is approximately $1,000 dollars, less than 1% of the original cost ten to fifteen years ago. This rapid decline of cost clearly demonstrated a variation of Moore’s Law. Another aspect of genetics that follows Moore’s Law is gene synthesis cost per base pair. Gene synthesis is the engineering of a physical sequence of DNA in a laboratory setting. It has been applied and used in various fields of research with much success. Gene synthesis has had long lasting impacts on the field of genetics due to its unique ability to generate physical copies of genes with ease, efficiency, and accuracy. Similar to the drastic decline in the cost of sequencing a human genome, gene synthesis cost per base pair has dropped from approximately $10 a base pair to approximately $0.10 a base pair over the past 10 years. Similar to the decrease in cost for whole genome synthesis, gene synthesis cost has been driven down by an increase in technology and a large number of companies supplying this technology. At Synbio Technologies we pride ourselves as being one of the leading companies for gene synthesis with some of the lowest prices in the business with the highest quality output.

Although there has been a decrease in gene synthesis cost, there has been an opposite effect on the quality of the output. As cost has fallen, quality and potential gene lengths have risen. At Synbio Technologies we offer the ability to synthesize genes up to and including 150 Kb in length with one hundred percent accuracy. This is accomplished by our Syno Platform which offers sequence verification multiple times throughout each of the three phases. This process is carried out by use of Sanger sequencing to verify that the generated sequence is identical to the sequence requested by the customer. In addition to the quality, the applications of gene synthesis have increased drastically, causing it to increase in popularity. Gene synthesis is a popular method of research to develop more effective vaccinations as well as genetically modified organisms. All three of these aspects: decreased gene synthesis cost, increased applications, and quality are intertwined. Gene synthesis is a technology that is extremely effective and commonly used in many pipelines by many different researchers. It is a reliable, well tested and trusted technology that has changed genetics research for the better. Pair these advantages with the low gene synthesis cost and it is clear why this method has drastically risen in popularity throughout the genetics community.

The decrease in gene synthesis costs has also caused us at Synbio Technologies to offer some of the lowest prices per base pair with the highest quality output. At Synbio Technologies, we are confident and ready to provide the costumer with the highest quality sequence for the lowest price. The confidence is relying upon our, patent pending, Syno Platform which guarantees one hundred percent accuracy within the synthesized genetic sequenced. This is accomplished with the constant verification of sequence quality for accuracy. This platform in place we can effectively engineering your gene of interest with low cost to you. With the low gene synthesis cost you and your team will be better suited to conduct various types of genetic research specific to your interests.

Gene Synthesis Related Services

Synbio Tenchologies can also design sequencing with codon optimization software -NGTMCodon Optimization Technology at no cost.

Gene Synthesis by PCR

Prior to the 1970s traditional cloning was used in order to amplify a gene of interest. This process of gene synthesis by PCR is still used today, but relies on a laborious process of achieving the final amplified product. Traditional cloning relies on recombinant DNA being integrated into a bacteria host’s genome. Once the DNA is integrated into the bacteria host’s genome, the DNA is then amplified and later extracted. Unfortunately, this process allows for many variables to be interfered with resulting in a tarnished and lower quality product. In the early 1980s, Kary Mullis discovered and developed a much more efficient method of amplifying genes of interest. This method is called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The basic process that PCR follows starts with the addition of two primers and a heat-stable Taq polymerase to the targeted gene. The mixture is then heated, allowing the hydrogen bonds between strands to denature. The mixture is then cooled, allowing the primers to hybridize to the complementary sequences of target DNA. Heat is then applied again to allow for the Taq polymerase to extend complementary strands from the primers. This process is then repeated hundreds or thousands of times, allowing for a large amount of amplification with ease. PCR has revolutionized the genetics research community, allowing millions of copies of DNA to be synthesized within hours. It is this efficiency that has made PCR become increasingly popular over the past thirty years. Another aspect of genetics that has revolutionized genetics research is gene synthesis. Gene synthesis is the process by which a physical sequence of DNA is constructed from a desired sequence in text format. Gene synthesis is carried out here, at Synbio Technologies, by our Syno® Platform. This allows us, at Synbio Technologies, to synthetically engineer genes up to 150 Kb in length. The sequence can then be amplified as many times as necessary by PCR. It is this connection between gene synthesis and PCR that has caused a large impact and various applications on the field of genetics.

The connection that these two technologies have is that gene synthesis uses PCR to amplify the gene of interest. The reliance is shown when PCR is used to amplify the synthetically engineered gene to the requested amount of copies. The gene of interest starts in text format, specified by the costumer, and put through our Syno Platform in order to generate the physical copy of the sequence. Throughout this process the possibility for errors within the sequence being generated can be quite high. For this reason, the Syno Platform includes multiple quality assessments to verify that the sequence of interest is identical to the one generated by Synbio Technologies. We offer one hundred percent sequence verification, analyzed with Sanger sequencing. After the sequenced is verified to be one hundred percent accurate, PCR is used to amplify the synthetically engineered gene. The resulting amount of product, specified by the customer, will then be shipped to your location, within as few as five days. The high quality product that the costumer receives from Synbio Technologies can then be put to use in various fields of genetics research that gene synthesis and PCR are commonly associated with. Gene synthesis itself offers a wide range of applications. It has been used to generate more effective vaccinations, as well as to study and improve the delivery of viral vectors used in gene therapy. Gene synthesis is the creation of the sequence of interest, but it is PCR that does the hard work to generate a sufficient amount of the sequence necessary to conduct these types of research. PCR offers the most efficient process to amplify the gene synthesis product in order to obtain a sufficient amount of product. Gene synthesis is a technology that is constantly utilized and relied upon, and few companies offer the efficiency and high quality product that Synbio Technologies offers.

This process, from costumer requested sequence to the final physical product, has been in use by Synbio Technologies for many years and we pride ourselves on our efficiency as well as high quality output. In addition to the efficiency and high quality output, we offer competitive prices and fast turnaround time. For gene synthesis, our prices starts at approximately $0.10 per base pair, which is near the lowest price in the gene synthesis industry. We offer the ability to synthesize a wide range of gene lengths, ranging from 100 base pairs to 150 Kb base pairs in length with one hundred percent accuracy. In addition to the range of lengths, using our Syno® 2.0 Platform, we are capable of generating many different structure of DNA. These structures include: repeated sequences, hairpin structures, high GC percentage, etc. These structures are of course then amplified by PCR in order to fulfill as many copies as the customer may need. After amplification by PCR and before shipping, the engineered sequences are then verified again in order to assure the quality of the product and the conservation of the requested product. This allows us to correct for any errors that may have occurred during the gene synthesis process or amplification by PCR. With the ability to generate large and complicated structures with this high of accuracy it is clear the Synbio Technologies is one of the leading companies in the gene synthesis industry.

Gene Synhtesis Related Services

Synbio Tenchologies can also design sequencing with codon optimization software -NGTMCodon Optimization Technology at no cost.

GC-Rich Gene Synthesis

Gene synthesis is the technology of artificially synthesizing double-stranded DNA in vitro, and is a crucially important technique in molecular biology. Conventional gene synthesis generally involves assembling small segments of DNA and/or amplifying known samples of genetic material, and requires the raw nucleobases guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine and uracil as starting materials.

GC-content (guanine-cytosine content) refers to the proportion of two nitrogenous bases, guanine and cytosine, in DNA and RNA molecules, which might be any domain of a gene, single gene, gene clusters, or even non-coding regions. Synthesis of high GC-content sequences can be troublesome due to issues with secondary structure, mispriming, or mis-annealing. GC-rich regions tend to facilitate base stacking, which makes them more stable than sequences with low GC-content. Additionally, secondary structures formed by high GC-content regions also tend to be stable and more resilient to denaturation. Sequences containing many guanine repeats can also generate complicated inter-strand folding due to hydrogen bonds between adjacent guanines.

GC-content is closely related to temperature optimization in gene synthesis. In PCR, primer GC ratio strongly influences the predicted annealing temperature of DNA templates. High GC-content tends to require a high melting temperature, which can result in mispriming or mis-annealing between the template and its complementary strand, leading to undesired and inaccurate gene products. Even when GC-rich sequences or G repeats are located in noncoding regions, the secondary strucutres formed can still affect factors in gene synthesis, such as melting temperature. Thus, an important part of gene synthesis is codon optimization, using synonymous codons to lower the GC-content of a sequence and lowering the melting temperature.

Synbio Technologies is proficient at accurately synthesizing error-free DNA constructs meeting customers’ requests, and is capable of assembling multi-kilobase plasmids or even entire genomes. Synbio Technologies can make gene synthesis perfect by handling even the most challenging synthesis requests, including genes or genomes with various complex sequences such as hairpin structures, high GC ratio, high AT percentage, multiple consecutive nucleotide sequences, and so on. The successful synthesis of GC-rich constructs is important to fully understand and study complex genes and even their non-coding segments with high conservation, which in turn poses profound significance in biomedical research.

Gene Synthesis in Genetic Engineering

Gene synthesis has revolutionized what was once thought to be impossible in the field of genetics. Synthesis of the first gene, a yeast tRNA, was achieved by Har Gobind Khorona and coworkers in 1972. Since then this technology has had long last impacts on genetic research and the biotechnology industry. Whether it is synthesizing small genes, ranging in lengths from a few hundred base pairs in length, to large genes, up to 150 Kb in length, gene synthesis has made recently daunting research aspirations achievable. Gene synthesis has a simple definition, the creation of synthetic genes within a laboratory setting, but an impactful influence on many scientific fields. One field in particular, genetic engineering, is often associated with gene synthesis. The association between these two topics is so prevalent because gene synthesis is a popular mechanism to achieve the genetic engineering sought out by researchers. Genetic engineering also has a wide range of application in many different scientific fields, many relying on gene synthesis.

Gene synthesis itself has a many applications, ranging from developing more effective vaccinations to creating large synthetic gene libraries. Synbio Technologies offers the ability to take a requested genetic sequence, in text format, and create the desired physical sequence with one hundred percent accuracy. This is done with our, patent pending, Syno® 2.0 Platform. The unique feature that this platform offers is the capability of synthesizing a genetic sequence that may not be preexisting within any organism. Previously, the sequence of interest was required to be existing in order to be extracted and later cloned. The Syno® 2.0 Platform allows us to generate the user specified sequence exactly, confirmed with Sanger sequencing, with a both time and cost effective manner. This technology is the foundation for genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is defined as the alteration of an organism’s genome using biotechnology.

This is accomplished through the incorporation of a genetic sequence that is foreign to an organism into its genome. The unique connection between gene synthesis and genetic engineering is found within this step. Gene synthesis allows us to synthetically create the gene of interest, which is then incorporated into the organism’s genome. The gene of interest can have a wide range of functions, and are specific and tailor made to the interest of the researcher. Once the gene of interest is incorporated into the organism’s genome, research can be conducted to determine effects of the newly incorporated gene on the organism. This general outline has been applied to a wide range of applications in various fields of interest.

The applications of genetic engineering can be found in many fields of ranging from gene therapy, through the use of viral vectors, to agriculture. Gene synthesis and genetic engineering have been used to study the effects of a genetic knockout in a particular gene, a method that is very commonly used in genetic research. It is seen when studying the effects of gene amplification, causing an overexpression of a gene of interest. Genetic engineering is most commonly seen in agriculture through the creation of genetically modified crops to optimize the quality as well as quantity of certain crops. This process has been going on for thousands of years through selective breeding, but recent advances in technology have allowed researchers to implement groundbreaking innovations on basic crop production. These innovations help to combat environmental pressures, such as draught or blight, as well as decreasing pesticide use by genetic modification. These modifications, accomplished by genetic engineering, have a simple goal in mind: to increase the quality and quantity of these crops which are essential in everyday life. It is through genetic engineering and gene synthesis that these innovations are possible.

The main advantage that gene synthesis has when relating to genetic engineering is the accessibility and ease of synthetically creating your gene of interest. With Synbio Technology’s Syno® Platform the process from desired sequence to genetically modified organism is easily achieved. This process starts with the input of the researcher’s requested sequence, up to 150 Kb in length. The requested sequences is created with one hundred percent accuracy and verified with Sanger sequencing. This step is done with a both time and accuracy efficient pipeline. The desired sequence will then be shipped to your location within as few as five business days. In addition to the time and accuracy efficiency Synbio Technologies offers an extremely cost effective approach, with prices starting at $0.25 per base pair for gene synthesis. The combination of competitive pricing, time efficiency, and accuracy have lead Synbio Technologies to be one of the leading biotechnology companies, especially within the realm gene synthesis and its relationship with genetic engineering.

Effects of the Syno® Platform in Gene Synthesis Industry

Recently, gene synthesis has become an extremely popular and effective method to conduct genetic research. This rise in popularity stems from the ease of use as well as the effective results. In short, gene synthesis can be described as the creation of a synthetic genetic sequence specified by the user. Recently, the genetic sequence of interest must have been present within an organism to be extracted and later studied. Gene synthesis allows researchers to bypass this step entirely, creating the sequence of interest and converting the sequence from text format to physical copy with ease. This accessibility has caused multiple companies to participate in this groundbreaking technology within the field of genetics. As the gene synthesis industry has grown drastically, companies have competed to become the best at synthesizing genes. At Synbio Technologies we pride ourselves as being one of the leading companies within this gene synthesis industry. This pride and confidence is mainly relying upon our, patent pending, Syno® Platforms. It is the three phases of this platform that separates us from any other company in the gene synthesis industry, allowing us to serve you with a high quality product, with an efficient time frame and competitive prices.

The first platform that Synbio Technologies offers, the Syno® 1.0 Platform, is an industrialized DNA chemical synthesis platform. Essentially, this platform specializes in the formation of oligos. An oligo can be described as a short fragment of DNA or RNA molecule. These oligos have a wide range of functions in various fields of genetic research including forensics, and genetic testing. In order to accomplish the output of high quality oligos, Synbio Technologies has four steps within this mechanism. First, the DNA sequence of interest is analyzed and designed. Once this complete, CG-base oligo synthesis is conducted. This step includes industry leading and manufacturing process which allows for the highest quality oligos. In order to increase the quality, the oligos are then purified using the proprietary purification process. Finally, there is then an additional step of quality assessment using MS analysis to verify the created oligos are what the user requested. The Syno® 1.0 Platform has a wide range of applications using this four part mechanism. Some applications include generating native DNA sequences, creating de novo DNA sequences, and constructing degenerated oligo libraries and so on. All of these processes have been utilized and proven with the use of oligo synthesis. This is just the first step in the process, which has allowed Synbio Technologies to become one of the premier companies in the gene synthesis industry. The remaining two platforms are what really separate us from the competition.

The Syno® 2.0 Platform focuses on PCR based gene synthesis and is an aspect that Synbio Technologies prides itself as being one of the leaders in the biotechnology and gene synthesis industries. Synbio Technologies is capable of synthesizing a wide range of gene lengths up to and including 150 Kb. The process as to how these genes are synthesized are constantly verified for accuracy as well as quality. The resulting synthesized gene product is guaranteed to be one hundred percent identity to the user specified requested sequence. The resulting synthesized gene can then be applied in various types of genetic research. One major application that differs from many others is the ability to generate de novo DNA sequences. This aspect has revolutionized genetic research since the early 1970s, increasing in quality and effectiveness along the way. The creation of these de novo DNA sequences has allowed researchers to develop more effective vaccinations, generate variant libraries, and improve the features of protein. It is the basis of so many crucial fields of genetic research. At Synbio Technologies we offer the highest quality gene synthesis product with the most competitive prices in the gene synthesis industry. We pride ourselves with the accuracy of our product which we are able to provide our users.

The third and final platform, the Syno® 3.0 Platform, specializes in oligo pool synthesis. This platform is described as a chip-based next generation DNA synthesis platform. Essentially, this platform allows us to generate the highest quality DNA fragments, de novo synthesized genes, small genomes, and variant libraries. In addition to this, the high quality output of these various genetic materials is provided to the user at the lowest prices in the gene synthesis industry. The process that this platform follows is very similar to that of the Syno® 1.0 Platform with some small and necessary alterations. First the proprietary DNA sequences are designed, analyzed and optimized. Once this is complete, the chip-based oligo pool synthesis process begins. This step utilizes the, industry leading, oligo-pool assembly and manipulation process. After that, there is proprietary error correction, allowing for a quality control and improving the resulting output. Then large fragment assembly, up to 150 Kb, is conducted. Once this is finished, the final step is to run a quality control including next generation sequencing. This final step allows for the resulting sequence to be verified and one hundred percent accurate. Overall, the applications of this platform are similar to that of the previous Syno® 1.0 and 2.0 Platforms. The user can generate native and de novo DNA sequences, build genes, chassis, operons, pathways and small genomes, as well as generate DNA variant libraries. In addition to these features, this platform offers a unique aspect which allows the process to be scalable. This means that it will take the same amount of time to produce 20,000 genes as it would to produce 20 genes, making the Syno® 3.0 Platform more effective. These features are what make the Syno® 3.0 Platform extremely valuable to many users.

Gene Synthesis Expression Vector

Gene synthesis is a fundamental technique in synthetic biology, allowing for the creation of unique synthetic genes that would be difficult or impossible to obtain naturally. In order to express a synthetic gene in an efficient and controlled way, expression vectors are often used to introduce the gene into a cell, after which the cell’s own gene expression system is used to synthesize the target protein.

Common Gene Synthesis Vector Types

There are three main categories of carriers that constitute vector systems in gene synthesis engineering: plasmids, bacteriophages and viruses. One of the most widely used expression vectors is that of Escherichia coli due to its ease of growth, rapid reproduction, and ease of transformation with exogenous DNA. Others include integration vectors, bacteriophage vector promotion, or shuttle vectors in S. cerevisiae.

Occasionally, a series of pGEX vectors (-1T, -2T, -3T), GST (glutathione S-trasferase) system, pEZZ18 are utilized for specific expression systems. Several variants transformed from pBluescript Ⅱ SK(+), together with pUC18, pUC19, pUC57, are also selected for certain projects.

Synbio Technologies are able to synthesize a large variety of target DNA and clone them into any vector as requested, regardless of the specifications of the project or the approach required. We guarantee a highly accurate and high-yield product at a low cost and with rapid turnaround.

Gene Synthesis Vector Design Application

Synbio Technologies provides two main approaches for amplifying DNA sequences via PCR cloning and subcloning technology. For DNA or amino acid sequences provided by customers, Synbio Technologies will synthesize error-free DNA de novo by request. Our proprietary Syno®gene synthesis platform can perfectly achieve enzymatic assembly through limited short DNA fragments. Even genes with challenging characteristics such as repetitive sequences, complex secondary structure, and high (>80%) or low (20%) GC content as well as long polypyrimidine runs, can be synthesized correctly.

Additionally, our professional Syno®Codon software can compute and optimize codon selection for original sequences or specific vectors. Any synthetic vector meeting our requirements can be quickly and accurately delivered at an economical price. Synbio Technologies can insert any target gene into any site of any vector, and can guarantee a high-quality, fully accurate final product for gene synthesis.

Gene Synthesis and Cloning

Gene Synthesis and Cloning is an integral part of many research pipelines. There are two popular methods of genetic cloning: DNA amplification by use of subcloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The former needs more time and resource consuming, while the latter spends less time and cost effectively. Traditionally, subcloning was commonly used for amplification. But recently PCR has become much more effective and popular. The popularity of amplification by subcloning may have dwindled because it requires multiple steps. The process starts with the removal of the genetic sequence of interest using specific restriction enzymes. This same restriction enzyme is then used to open up the plasmid where the genetic sequence will be inserted into. This creates “sticky ends” which allow the genetic sequence to be more easily inserted. The genetic sequences is then added into a plasmid and sealed in place with DNA ligase. The plasmid is subcequently inserted into bacteria where the genetic sequence of interest is amplified and later extracted. This is a somewhat laborious process when compared to PCR. PCR has very simple steps: extracting the genetic sequence of interest and loading it into the machine. The sequence of interest is then rapidly amplified with a high quality output. The amplified sequence can then be used to in various research topics specific to the user. Amplification of these sequences were once restricted to only allow preexisting sequences to be extracted and amplified, but recent technology has allowed a small change in this.

The interesting aspect that Synbio Technologies offers is the ability to synthesize the genetic sequence of interest, as opposed to extracting the preexisting sequence from an organism. This technology is referred to as our Syno®2.0 Platform, which allows Synbio Technologies to successfully synthesize any desired genetic sequence, specified by the user. The lengths of these sequences can vary from a small as a few hundred base pairs to up to 150 Kb or even more in length. The Syno®2.0 Platform provides an extremely effective and revolutionary approach to genetic research. Traditionally, the sequence of interest must be present within a genome of an organism to then be extracted and later amplified. This platform allows us to synthetically create a sequence that does not need to be preexisting within any organism. The Syno®2.0 Platform allows us to move from a text file of the user specified sequence to the physical genetic constructs, bypassing the previous stipulation of extracting the preexisting sequence. The resulting synthetic products is then analyzed using Sanger Sequencing in order to verify and guarantee one hundred percent accuracy. Once successful, Synbio Technologies offers the option to clone this sequence as many times as necessary. This is done by use of either PCR or subcloning, both of which are extremely effective mechanisms to amplify the genetic sequence. The process of gene synthesis and later gene cloning allows Synbio Technologies to supply the researcher with a sufficient amount of genetic material needed within an efficient timeframe.

Synbio Technologies also offers PCR cloning if the requested sequence of interest is already present and does not need to be synthetically engineered. First the provided sequence will be verified using Sanger Sequencing in order to account for one hundred percent accuracy. The resulting verified sequence will then be put through our flexible and reliable pipeline of gene cloning. Using patent pending, Syno®2.0 Platform and Clone®3.1 system, Synbio Technologies is able to achieve inserting any sequence of interest into any site of a vector specified by the user. This allows the user to specify which restriction enzyme to use, both for the extraction of genetic sequence, as well as the restriction enzyme used on the plasmid. These wide range of possibilities allows the researcher to design a location within a specific vector in order to amplify the sequence of interest. This specificity is something that Synbio Technologies is very proud of, allowing us to adhere to any requests that the user might have while also providing a high quality output in the process.

At Synbio Technologies we pride ourselves as being one of the leading companies in the biotechnology industry, especially when referring to gene synthesis. We offer both accurate and time effective approaches to gene synthesis and gene cloning. The genetic sequence of interest will be Sanger Sequenced and verified for both genetically synthesized sequences as well as sequences provided by the user. This allows us to verify that the sequence, as well as the resulting amplified sequences, are extremely accurate before shipping the resulting product to the user. If the DNA sequence of interest has not yet been sequenced with high quality, we will conduct sequence validation in order to verify the accuracy before amplification. In addition to the accuracy and time efficiency, Synbio Technologies offers competitive prices for both gene synthesis and cloning of your sequence of interest. With competitive prices, along with the verified accuracy and time efficiency, Synbio Technologies is ready to offer customers a unique pipeline to utilize and rely on when conducting various types of genetic research that including gene synthesis and gene cloning.

Gene Synthesis Methods and Applications

Introduction

Over the last few decades, gene synthesis and assembly technology have developed rapidly. Since the 1960s, our capability to synthesize genes has skyrocketed from less than 100bp to more than 1,000,000bp. Gene synthesis methods and applications have a profound impact in metabolic engineering, genetic network design, and vaccine design. However, existing gene synthesis methods still have their fair share of drawbacks and inconsistencies, such as low yield, high error rate, and lack of scalability both on the size of the project and the size of the gene.

Gene Synthesis Methods

Gene synthesis methods are not able to replace each other, and each occupies its own niche depending on the requirements of the project. The following is a brief overview of several common gene synthesis methods:

  • Solid-phase synthesis
  • The traditional oligonucleotide synthesis uses a small volume of solution processed in a column full of chemicals. The oligonucleotides are synthesized by attaching nucleotide residues stepwise to the end of the chain, one-by-one. The addition of each oligonucleotide consists of four steps: de-blocking, coupling, capping, and oxidation. The integrity of the sequence and the productivity of the synthesis are hindered for products longer than 200bp, and thus this method is generally limited by DNA sequence length. The primary advantage of this method is its high accuracy, compensating for its high expense and low output.

  • Chip-based DNA synthesis
  • As the name implies, Chip-based synthesis utilizes microarray chips utilizing a series of electrochemical techniques. Different kinds of oligonucleotides are able to be synthesized in different specific parts of the chips, called assembly subpools. Following this piecewise synthesis, gene fragments in subpools are amplified and then aggregated and assembled into the finished product. Chip-based DNA synthesis is cheaper than solid-phase synthesis and can yield a larger amount of the target gene, but its accuracy suffers in comparison.

  • PCR based enzyme synthesis
  • PCR-based enzyme synthesis generates gene fragments through a variety of cell systems. Using the Yeast system as an example, by using different incision enzymes and label markers, different kind of genes can be added to Yeast chromosomes. Due to the nature of gene insertion the target gene could have no limit to its length as long as the chromosomes can accommodate. This method performs well in synthesizing large gene fragments, and with the help of the cell systems the accuracy of the gene sequence is guaranteed.

Gene synthesis applications

Synthetic genes have wide implications on a variety of fields, ranging from genetic circuits to metabolic improvement to many more. As our technology advances and our understanding of genetics continues to develop, scientists could modify and design genes, The scientists have already synthesized and assembled a gene fragment of over 100kbp. When inserted into a host bacterium lacking its own genetic material, the bacterium was able to successfully produce new cells. Gene synthesis methods can even be used to construct new metabolic systems in living cells. For example, Jay D. Keasling constructed a new metabolic system in E. coli and S. cerevisiae in the mid2000s to produce artemisinin. An important component in some anti-malarial drugs, Keasling’s construct reduced the cost of artemisinin production by tenfold, showing that gene synthesis has a vast amount of potential in medicine and countless other fields.