Category: Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology Evolution

Since molecular biology was first established, in the 1930s, the complexity of various biological systems have been explored in order to better understand these systems. As years went by, and our understanding of these systems increased, the information that fell under the, large and ever-growing, umbrella of “molecular biology” became more specific and eventually subdivided by the particular sub-field being studied. Some of these sub-fields include: genetics, proteomics, and cytology. Many of these sub-fields have become extremely popular and very well studied since molecular biology was first established.

Genome Project and Molecular Biology

In the more recent past, there has been an influx of quantitative research within molecular biology. This groundbreaking research has completed the connection between two popular sub-fields of molecular biology: computer science through use of bioinformatics and computational biology. This was most notably seen with the success of the Human Genome Project (HGP). The Human Genome Project allowed for over three billion nucleotide base pairs of euchromatic genome to be sequenced and presented as a reference. This was an important milestone of molecular biology which allowed the human genome to go from the analog world of biology into the digital world. This was a giant step, within the field of molecular biology, which caused a domino effect that resulted in thousands of human genomes to be sequenced with increasingly lower cost.

On 2rd June 2016, the Genome Project-Write (GP-write) announced a continuation of genomics research through multiple molecular biology tools. These multiple molecular biology tools included gene synthesis and genome editing technologies. These technologies are utilized to synthesize and test large portions of many genomes stemming from microbes, plants and even animals. GP-write’s commitment to furthering our understanding and effectiveness of these technologies has the possibility to improve research and development of the topics of life sciences, new bio-based therapies, and nutrition.

New era of molecular biology

Even as these recent accomplishments in molecular biology unfold, a new problem seems to be stemming from them. The problem that has come about comes in the form of designing and even artificially synthesizing new life.

A recent study has proven the ability to accomplish a complete chromosomal transplantation from one cell to another. After the transplant has been successfully conducted, the chromosome can then be activated to conduct various genetic activity. We can then utilize specific enzymes, digestive proteins and other substances within these cells. This combination will result in the cell’s loss of original features and a totally new species.

Due to the crisis of resource shortage critical to human sustainability partnered with the ever-increasing human population, there is a need for us to seek effective approaches for sustainable living. The furthering of our knowledge on biological systems through these technologies would have many positive effects on successfully creating a sustainable habitat. These positive effects would come as a result of better understanding of the physiology of cells, developing new molecular medicines, as well as generating sustainable energy sources, such as biofuels. All of these will contribute to a more successful living environment through the use of molecular biology.

One molecular biology technology, gene synthesis, has slowly become better understood over the past ten years and has drastically increased our capability of editing and synthesizing genes of interest. Synthesizing DNA artificially is very difficult and increases in difficulty when attempting to synthesize long genetic sequences. This is because the longer the sequence being generated is, the higher the possibility of generating errors. Therefore, a new method is required to successfully conduct gene synthesis and correct for all mistakes generated when the sequence was being synthesized.

As one of the leading companies in the field of synthetic biology, Synbio Technologies has unique proprietary GPS platform on the basis of genotype, phenotype and synotype. We can provide excellent molecular biology services including: plasmid DNA preparation, PCR cloning and subcloning, site-directed mutagenesis and vector construction. We have the ability to generate sequences that are de novo, meaning that the genetic sequence is not preexisting within any organism in biology. We also have the ability to generate sequences up to and including 200kb in length in addition to complex gene products and structures. Synbio Technologies prides itself in our ability to use these molecular biology technologies to better suite our customer’s needs when conducting various types of research.

Molecular Biology Related Services

Molecular Biology Cloning

Molecular biology cloning

Molecular cloning is one method in molecular biology that is commonly used to amplify a genetic sequence of interest. This is accomplished by inserting recombinant DNA into a vector which can then carry DNA fragments in host organisms to be amplified. This process of amplification is based on molecular biology standard, first is to recombine the target gene into the vector DNA molecules in vitro. Then transfer the recombinant DNA to host cells. After transferring, there is a screening of cells which have expressed the recombinant DNA, after purification and amplification.

Molecular Biology Cloning Technology Process:

  • Isolate the target gene and vector:
    1. Direct separation is suitable for the extraction and separation of bacterial chromosomes, plasmids and virus DNA whose genetic background are of interest to be studied.
    2. Gene synthesis is used to generate short DNA fragments whose sequence is known clearly.
    3. cDNA can be synthesized by reverse transcription from mRNA.
    4. Screening the gene of from the genomic library for molecular cloning.
  • The target gene and vector are cleaved with a restriction enzyme.
  • This allows the fragments to be more easily connected later.

  • The target gene and vector are then ligated with DNA ligase.
  • This seals the connection between target gene and vector.

  • Transfer the ligated recombinant vector into host cells
  • Bacteria: E. coli, fungi: Yeast, insect cells or mammalian cells.

  • Conduct screening at different levels using different methods to test for quality.
  • For example: vector size, enzyme digestion results, screening markers and so on.

    Molecular biology cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms. First is the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned. Second is the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA. Molecular cloning technology is central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine.

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Introduction to Molecular Biology

Introduction to molecular biology

Molecular biology is a subfield in biology that studies the various topics and molecular mechanisms within cells that are important for proper cellular function. These topics can include any cellular mechanism ranging from cellular metabolism to utilizing a molecular function in order to successfully accomplish gene synthesis. These topics and mechanisms have the ability to be altered slightly to accomplish a particular application of interest. These mechanisms within molecular biology, have been studied intently and applied to various fields of biological research and development. The applications within molecular biology that this article will introduce are gene expression and protein synthesis. These endogenous mechanisms are vital to the proper cellular function within molecular biology that can be altered to successfully conduct both gene synthesis and protein synthesis.

Molecular biology for gene synthesis

One important aspect of the gene synthesis process is that it is not limited to DNA replication of a preexisting DNA fragment. Gene synthesis is capable of in vitro artificial DNA sequence synthesis, which allows for the synthesis of de novo genetic sequences. Contrary to traditional methods of DNA amplification, gene synthesis does not require that the sequence of interest be preexisting within nature. This is accomplished by using refined chemical methods for gene synthesis without a template DNA chain. The resulting templates are then connected to form a gene fragment, by use of various molecular biology mechanisms. With the development of molecular biology, researchers have the ability to synthesize any gene of interest up to and including 150 Kb in length. The development of more efficient gene synthesis technologies has also allowed the gene synthesis process to become more time efficient, accurate and cost effective. These contributing factors has led gene synthesis to become an important technique within molecular biology.

Molecular biology for protein express

The aim of gene fragment synthesis is for the resulting synthesized gene to be inserted into plasmid vector. After this is accomplished, the recombinant plasmid transcripts are then inserted into cells, where the recombinant plasmid will be expressed. This allows for the expression of the newly synthesized gene of interest and its resulting protein. In order to obtain the highest quality product and strongest protein expression the recombinant protein must first be purified. The resulting purified protein can then be used in subsequent experiments, specific to our customer’s interests. These experiments may include research contributing to the better understanding of protein structure, function and activity of cells, as well as the diagnosis of the certain diseases. All of applications can provide scientific basis for treatment and drug development. For these reasons, optimizing the gene synthesis expression at the protein level is of upmost important to us, at Synbio Technologies.

Synbio Technologies offers comprehensive molecular biology services, designed to fit our customer’s specific needs. These molecular biology services include gene synthesis, PCR cloning, subcloning, site-directed mutagenesis, vector construction and other related projects. The services Synbio Technologies offers rely upon our Syno® 1.0 and Syno® 2.0 platforms. These platforms allow us to generate the highest quality gene synthesis product for a cost effective price. In addition to this, Synbio Technologies also offers the bacterial and yeast expression systems. These systems help optimize the resulting protein product from our synthesized sequences. The whole process is done with such ease and efficiency, that we are confident our high quality purified recombinant protein will arrive to your bench in as soon as 6 weeks.

Molecular Biology Related Services

Applications of Molecular Biology Techniques in Environmental Microbiology Research

Advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, microbial genetic manipulations have promoted the application of microorganisms in in ecological and environmental research. Genetically engineered microorganisms are being developed and assessed for their beneficial uses in environmental monitoring, toxic chemicals pollution control and genetically engineered microorganisms.

Advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, microbial genetic manipulations have promoted the application of microorganisms in in ecological and environmental research. Genetically engineered microorganisms are being developed and assessed for their beneficial uses in environmental monitoring, toxic chemicals pollution control and genetically engineered microorganisms.

Hybridization probe

The oligonucleotide probes can hybridize to DNA or RNA whose base sequence allows probe–target base pairing due to complementarity between the probe and target to analyze the presence of nucleotide sequences (the DNA target) that are complementary to the sequence in the probe.

Due to the stringent specificity and high sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization, hybridization probes are used on a broad level in microbial ecology, such as microbial detection, qualitative and quantitative analysis of microbial, distribution, abundance and adaptability of microbial.

PCR based technologies

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify DNA template, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in vitro. This technique can be used to analyze mRNA expression profile among different growth stages.

Electrophoresis

The interaction between DNA double helix are disrupted during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis(TGGE) and other special forms of electrophoresis, thus the DNA fragments consist of different sequences can be separated on acrylamide gel with superior resolution.

Genetic engineering

New recombinant DNA may be generated by first isolation and amplification the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods, then the chimera DNA sequence or artificially synthesized DNA maybe inserted into the host organism. This technique is essential for the construction of microbes with enhanced biodegradability that may be used in controlling remediation of contaminated environment or fermentation of waste to produce natural gas.

Application of molecular biology technology not only expanded the horizon but also increased the depth of microbial ecology research. The increasing amount of microbe’s genomic data provides new opportunities for understanding the genetic and molecular bases of the degradation genes in various bacteria. The in-depth knowledge of microbes’ genome will make the research more objective and more controllable.

Gene Synthesis Plasmid Preparation

At Synbio Technologies we pride ourselves in being one of the premier companies within not only the gene synthesis industry, but the biotechnology industry as a whole. This confidence is relying upon our tested and proven methods of gene synthesis. Gene synthesis can be defined as the method in synthetic biology used to engineer an artificial gene of interest in a laboratory setting. Ever since gene synthesis was first successfully conducted in the early 1970s it has become a highly sought mechanism in various fields of genetics research. For this reason many companies, like Synbio Technologies, have been attempting to optimize their gene synthesis products; but none of them have done this with quite success like Synbio Technologies. Our Syno Platform allows us to generate any sequence of interest up to and including 150 Kb in length. Another aspect of gene synthesis that Synbio Technologies has to offer is our gene synthesis plasmid preparation. Using this technology we are capable of generating any sequence and inserting it into any plasmid of interest. For gene synthesis plasmid preparation there are typically two forms of final product: transfection grade and research grade. Both differ slightly in their mechanism of being generated, as well as research application. Through use of Synbio Technology’s Syno® Platform, as well as our gene synthesis plasmid preparation we are ready to supply our customers with whichever plasmid product is necessary.

The differences between the transfection grade and research grade generated plasmids lies mainly in the applications each particular plasmid is used for. First, the research grade is used more in a laboratory setting to conduct various types of genetics research. These topics include: molecular cloning, mutagenesis, southern blotting, etc. All of these methods are used in order to conduct various types of genetics research with use of gene synthesis. Where gene synthesis comes in is through the insertion of the requested sequence into the plasmid. This insertion, and subsequent amplification, allows our customers to conduct any type of research necessary that requires a research grade plasmid construction. Second, the transfection grade plasmid is used mainly for protein manufacturing, antibody production and other forms of gene therapy. The link between this plasmid and gene synthesis is again the insertion of the sequence of interest into the particular plasmid. This can be extremely useful when conducting different types of gene therapy. The requested sequence can be loaded into the plasmid with the hopes of reversing the endogenous mutated gene of interest. This powerful technology has the ability to further our understanding of genetics and it is all thanks to gene synthesis.

Gene synthesis is something that Synbio Technologies does extremely well, mainly relying upon our Syno® Gene Synthesis Platform. This platform is used to generate the customer requested sequence with one hundred percent accuracy. The resulting gene synthesis product can then be used in order to prepare a plasmid of interest. This process is normally quite daunting, but Synbio Technologies is more than confident in our ability to generate the requested gene synthesis product and resulting gene synthesis plasmid. This process is all done within a quick turnaround time and competitive prices. For this reason, Synbio Technologies has risen to the top of not only the gene synthesis industry, but the resulting biotechnology industry as well. We offer a one stop shop for our customer’s gene synthesis plasmid preparation, with competitive prices, high quality output, and an efficient turnaround time. With this combination, our customers will be conducting research in no time with confidence in the product that we supply them.

Gene Synthesis Related Services

Synbio Tenchologies can also design sequencing with codon optimization software -NGTMCodon Optimization Technology at no cost.