CpG ODNs are a kind of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine guanine dinucleotide, which is in the form of single stranded DNA and is an agonist of Toll like receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 plays an important role in the innate immune system and acts as a bridge between innate immunity and adaptive immunity in antitumor response. Studies have shown that treatment with chemically synthesized CpG ODNs can lead to tumor regression because B-cell malignancies express TLR9 and respond directly to CpG ODNs.The Role of CpG ODNs in the Regulation of the Immune System
CpG ODNs directly stimulate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and B cells. For example, CpG ODNs induce the maturation of pDCs by up-regulating MHC and costimulatory molecules and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. This enhances the ability to stimulate T cells, including promoting T cell survival and memory, enhancing the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells, and activating CD4+ T cells. CpG ODNs can also promote B cell proliferation and plasma cell differentiation. In addition, TLR9 stimulation in B cells increase the secretion of cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10.
Different types of CpG ODNs have different structural characteristics and immune effects. They are generally divided into three types: Class A, Class B, and Class C. The structures, functions, and applications of each type of CpG ODN are summarized as follows:
|Class A||It has a palindromic sequence containing CpG dinucleotide as its core, poly G tails at both ends, and partial phosphorothioated modifications on the phosphodiester bond skeleton.||It can activate plasmocytoid dendritic cells and induce many type I interferons, which has weak activity against B cells.||Antitumor and antiviral immune adjuvants in the treatment of immune deficiency diseases.|
|Class B||It is a type of linear CpG ODN modified with full phosphorothioates.||It has strong immunostimulatory activity on B cells, but cannot activate plasmocytoid dendritic cells.||Subunit vaccine, DNA vaccine and other vaccine adjuvants.|
|Class C||It is a type of CpG ODN modified with full phosphorothioates. It can form a dimer through the palindromic sequence, and have the activity of Class A and Class B CpG ODNs.||It can activate both plasmocytoid dendritic cells and B cells.||Autoimmune disease stimulant|
CpG ODNs have species specificity in certain species. Researchers are continuing to explore CpG ODN sequences that play a role in different species. For example, previous experiments have shown that the following sequences have strong stimulating activity to corresponding species:
|Species type||CpG ODN sequence|
Based on our Syno® synthesis platform, Synbio Technologies can provide three different types of CpG ODN spot products: Class A, Class B, and Class C. We can also customize the synthesis of CpG ODN sequences with various modification types according to the needs of customers.Competitive Advantages
• Large spot supply
• High purity guarantee
• Low endotoxin
• Aseptic preparation
Ling Bai, Wei Chen, et al. Heterogeneity of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling in B cell malignancies and its potential therapeutic application. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2017.15:51.
. Ballas ZK. et al., 2001. Divergent therapeutic and immunologic effects of oligodeoxynucleotides with distinct CpG motifs. J Immunol. 167(9):4878-86.
Julia Scheiermann and Dennis M. Klinman. Clinical evaluation of CpG oligonucleotides as adjuvants for vaccines targeting infectious diseases and cancer. Vaccine. 2014. 32(48): 6377–6389.